pupils, availability of financial resources and manpower requirements of the country.
2. The importance of qualitative considerations for development. The need for achieving higher standards at the second and third levels is imperative. Even at the primary level the maintenance of proper standards in order to prevent wastage and to provide a satisfactory basis for the higher level is essential.
3. The need for diversification of education by enlarging and strengthening vocational and technical education at the second and third levels in line with the developing capacity of the economy to utilize trained skills.
4. Expansion and improvement of science education at all levels.
5. Promotion of programmes of adult and youth and family education as an integral part of overall educational development.
6. Development of education should reflect the principle of equality of educational opportunity and the promotion of international peace and amity.
After granting these broad goals, educational planners could be excused if they aimed to do no more than maintain the current proportions of children in school, because the school-age population in developing countries is expected to increase by something like 25 percent during the 1970's. However, planners have usually aimed much higher than this. A bird's-eye view of educational goals in the LDC's can be had by examining the ambitious educational targets adopted a few years ago by UNESCO Conferences of the Ministers of Education in Latin America, Africa, and Asia,* which have been very influential in reinforcing the educational aims of the member countries. The goals for enrollments and enrollment rates, as well as the financial implications, are presented in Table 4.
Table 4 indicates clearly that the educational planners hope to improve very substantially on the 1965 situation by 1970. It is now known that in both Africa and Asia, the growth of education in the 1960-65 period was not quite as rapid as the educational planners had hoped, and the 1965 enrollment rates were lower than those shown in Table 4J This makes it less likely that the 1970 goals can be reached, but if they are reached, enrollment rates at the first level of education will reach 71 percent in Africa, 74 percent in Asia, and 100 percent in Latin America. Even greater relative increases are envisaged at the second and third levels. The UNESCO statisticians estimated the cost of meeting these targets. They calculated that in Africa (where enrollment targets at the second and third levels were rather more ambitious than in Asia or Latin America) the countries as a group would have to spend nearly 7 percent of GNP on education by 1970. The Latin American group
These targets were revisions of targets proposed by UNESCO for the United Nations Development Decade (16, p. 30).
TA detailed analysis of the statistical evidence is contained in (17, 18).n education (2). They are, however, subject to a variety of weaknesses, not the least of which is that the ratio of private expenditure to public expenditure on education varies between countries. There is unfortunately a dearth of intercountry comparative information on private expenditures on education.al-urban migration, in the multilingual character of the society, in the existence of polygamy, and